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All about: FML Ophthalmic Ointment

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Generic Name: fluorometholone
Dosage Form: Ophthalmic ointment

FML Description

FML® (fluorometholone ophthalmic ointment) 0.1 % is a topical anti-inflammatory agent for ophthalmic use.

Chemical Name:

Fluorometholone: 9-Fluoro-11β, 17-dihydroxy-6α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione

Structural Formula:

Contains: Active: fluorometholone 0.1%. Preservative: phenylmercuric acetate (0.0008%).Inactives: mineral oil; petrolatum (and) lanolin alcohol; and white petrolatum.

FML - Clinical Pharmacology

Corticosteroids inhibit the inflammatory response to a variety of inciting agents and probably delay or slow healing. They inhibit the edema, fibrin deposition, capillary dilation, leukocyte migration, capillary proliferation, fibroblast proliferation, deposition of collagen, and scar formation associated with inflammation.

There is no generally accepted explanation for the mechanism of action of ocular corticosteroids. However, corticosteroids are thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, collectively called lipocortins. It is postulated that these proteins control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and Ieukotrienes by inhibiting the release of their common precursor arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2.

Corticosteroids are capable of producing a rise in intraocular pressure. In clinical studies of documented steroid-responders, fluorometholone demonstrated a significantly longer average time to produce a rise in intraocular pressure than dexamethasone phosphate; however, in a small percentage of individuals, a significant rise in intraocular pressure occurred within one week. The ultimate magnitude of the rise was equivalent for both drugs.

Indications and Usage for FML

FML® ophthalmic ointment is indicated for the treatment of steroid-responsive inflammation of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, and anterior segment of the globe.

Contraindications

FML® ophthalmic ointment is contraindicated in most viral diseases of the cornea and conjunctiva including epithelial herpes simplex keratitis (dendritic keratitis), vaccinia, and varicella, and also in mycobacterial infection of the eye and fungal diseases of ocular structures. FML® ointment is also contraindicated in individuals with known or suspected hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients of this preparation and to other corticosteroids.

Warnings

Prolonged use of corticosteroids may result in glaucoma with damage to the optic nerve, defects in visual acuity and fields of vision, and in posterior subcapsular cataract formation. Prolonged use may also suppress the host immune response and thus increase the hazard of secondary ocular infections.

Various ocular diseases and long-term use of topical corticosteroids have been known to cause corneal and scleral thinning. Use of topical corticosteroids in the presence of thin corneal or scleral tissue may lead to perforation.

Acute purulent infections of the eye may be masked or activity enhanced by the presence of corticosteroid medication.

If this product is used for 10 days or longer, intraocular pressure should be routinely monitored even though it may be difficult in children and uncooperative patients. Steroids should be used with caution in the presence of glaucoma. Intraocular pressure should be checked frequently.

The use of steroids after cataract surgery may delay healing and increase the incidence of bleb formation.

Use of ocular steroids may prolong the course and may exacerbate the severity of many viral infections of the eye (including herpes simplex). Employment of a corticosteroid medication in the treatment of patients with a history of herpes simplex requires great caution; frequent slit lamp microscopy is recommended.

Corticosteroids are not effective in mustard gas keratitis and Sjögren's keratoconjunctivitis.

Precautions

General:

The initial prescription and renewal of the medication order beyond 8 grams of FML® ophthalmic ointment should be made by a physician only after examination of the patient with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy, and, where appropriate, fluorescein staining. If signs and symptoms fail to improve after 2 days, the patient should be re-evaluated.

As fungal infections of the cornea are particularly prone to develop coincidentally with long-term local corticosteroid applications, fungal invasion should be suspected in any persistent corneal ulceration where a corticosteroid has been used or is in use. Fungal cultures should be taken when appropriate.

It this product is used for 10 days or longer, intraocular pressure should be monitored (see WARNINGS).

Ophthalmic ointments may retard corneal healing.

Information for Patients:

If inflammation or pain persists longer than 48 hours or becomes aggravated, the patient should be advised to discontinue use of the medication and consult a physician.

This product is sterile when packaged. To prevent contamination, care should be taken to avoid touching the tube tip to eyelids or to any other surface. The use of this tube by more than one person may spread infection. Keep tube tightly closed when not in use. Keep out of the reach of children.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility:

No studies have been conducted in animals or in humans to evaluate the possibility of these effects with fluorometholone.

Pregnancy:

Teratogenic effects. Pregnancy Category C: Fluorometholone has been shown to be embryocidal and teratogenic in rabbits when administered at low multiples of the human ocular dose. Fluorometholone was applied ocularly to rabbits daily on day 6 - 18 of gestation, and dose-related fetal loss and fetal abnormalities including cleft palate, deformed rib cage, anomalous limbs and neural abnormalities such as encephalocele, craniorachischisis, and spina bifida were observed. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of fluorometholone in pregnant women, and it is not known whether fluorometholone can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Fluorometholone should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers:

It is not known whether topical ophthalmic administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk.Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from fluorometholone, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use:

Safety and effectiveness in infants below the age of 2 years have not been established.

Geriatric Use:

No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.

Adverse Reactions

Adverse reactions include, in decreasing order of frequency, elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) with possible development of glaucoma and infrequent optic nerve damage, posterior subcapsular cataract formation, and delayed wound healing.

Although systemic effects are extremely uncommon, there have been rare occurrences of systemic hypercorticoidism after use of topical steroids.

Corticosteroid-containing preparations have also been reported to cause acute anterior uveitis and perforation of the globe. Keratitis, conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers, mydriasis, conjunctival hyperemia, loss of accommodation and ptosis have occasionally been reported following local use of corticosteroids.

The development of secondary ocular infection (bacterial, fungal, and viral) has occurred. Fungal and viral infections of the cornea are particularly prone to develop coincidentally with long-term applications of steroids. The possibility of fungal invasion should be considered in any persistent corneal ulceration where steroid treatment has been used (see WARNINGS).

FML Dosage and Administration

A small amount (approximately 1/2 inch ribbon) of ointment should be applied to the conjunctival sac one to three times daily. During the initial 24 to 48 hours, the frequency of dosing may be increased to one application every 4 hours. Care should be taken not to discontinue therapy prematurely.

If signs and symptoms fail to improve after 2 days, the patient should be re-evaluated (see PRECAUTIONS).

The dosing of FML® ophthalmic ointment may be reduced, but care should be taken not to discontinue therapy prematurely. In chronic conditions, withdrawal of treatment should be carried out by gradually decreasing the frequency of applications.

How is FML Supplied

FML® (fluorometholone ophthalmic ointment) 0.1 % is supplied in a collapsible aluminum tube with a black low density polyethylene screw cap in the following size: 3.5g in 3.5g tube– NDC 0023-0316-04

Note: Store at or below 25°C (77°F). Avoid exposure to temperatures above 40°C (104°F).

Rx Only

Rev November 2001

© 2001 Allergan, Inc.
Irvine, California 92612 U.S.A.
® Marks owned by Allergan, Inc.
Printed in U.S.A
2366X
71091US11J


FML (fluorometholone)
PRODUCT INFO
Product Code 0023-0316 Dosage Form OINTMENT
Route Of Administration OPHTHALMIC DEA Schedule
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
fluorometholone (fluorometholone) Active 1 MILLIGRAM  In 1 GRAM
mineral oil Inactive  
petrolatum Inactive  
lanolin alcohol Inactive  
white petrolatum Inactive  
phenylmercuric acetate Inactive  
IMPRINT INFORMATION
Characteristic Appearance Characteristic Appearance
Color Score
Shape Symbol
Imprint Code Coating
Size
PACKAGING
# NDC Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 0023-0316-04 3.5 GRAM In 1 TUBE None

Revised: 01/2007

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