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All about: Lipitor

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Generic Name: atorvastatin calcium
Dosage Form: Tablets

Lipitor Description

Lipitor® (atorvastatin calcium) is a synthetic lipid-lowering agent. Atorvastatin is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early and rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis.

Atorvastatin calcium is [R-(R*, R*)]-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-β, δ-dihydroxy-5-(1-methylethyl)-3-phenyl-4-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-1H-pyrrole-1-heptanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1) trihydrate. The empirical formula of atorvastatin calcium is (C33H34 FN2O5)2Ca•3H2O and its molecular weight is 1209.42. Its structural formula is:

Atorvastatin calcium is a white to off-white crystalline powder that is insoluble in aqueous solutions of pH 4 and below. Atorvastatin calcium is very slightly soluble in distilled water, pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, and acetonitrile, slightly soluble in ethanol, and freely soluble in methanol.

Lipitor tablets for oral administration contain 10, 20, 40 or 80 mg atorvastatin and the following inactive ingredients: calcium carbonate, USP; candelilla wax, FCC; croscarmellose sodium, NF; hydroxypropyl cellulose, NF; lactose monohydrate, NF; magnesium stearate, NF; microcrystalline cellulose, NF; Opadry White YS-1-7040 (hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, talc, titanium dioxide); polysorbate 80, NF; simethicone emulsion.

Lipitor - Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Atorvastatin is a selective, competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme that converts 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols, including cholesterol. Cholesterol and triglycerides circulate in the bloodstream as part of lipoprotein complexes. With ultracentrifugation, these complexes separate into HDL (high-density lipoprotein), IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein), LDL (low-density lipoprotein), and VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) fractions. Triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol in the liver are incorporated into VLDL and released into the plasma for delivery to peripheral tissues. LDL is formed from VLDL and is catabolized primarily through the high-affinity LDL receptor. Clinical and pathologic studies show that elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (total-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) promote human atherosclerosis and are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease, while increased levels of HDL-C are associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk.

In animal models, Lipitor lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol synthesis in the liver and by increasing the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell-surface to enhance uptake and catabolism of LDL; Lipitor also reduces LDL production and the number of LDL particles. Lipitor reduces LDL-C in some patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a population that rarely responds to other lipid-lowering medication(s).

A variety of clinical studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of total-C, LDL-C, and apo B (a membrane complex for LDL-C) promote human atherosclerosis. Similarly, decreased levels of HDL-C (and its transport complex, apo A) are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic investigations have established that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of total-C and LDL-C, and inversely with the level of HDL-C.

Lipitor reduces total-C, LDL-C, and apo B in patients with homozygous and heterozygous FH, nonfamilial forms of hypercholesterolemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. Lipitor also reduces VLDL-C and TG and produces variable increases in HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1. Lipitor reduces total-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apo B, TG, and non-HDL-C, and increases HDL-C in patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia. Lipitor reduces intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C) in patients with dysbetalipoproteinemia.

Like LDL, cholesterol-enriched triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, including VLDL, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and remnants, can also promote atherosclerosis. Elevated plasma triglycerides are frequently found in a triad with low HDL-C levels and small LDL particles, as well as in association with non-lipid metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease. As such, total plasma TG has not consistently been shown to be an independent risk factor for CHD. Furthermore, the independent effect of raising HDL or lowering TG on the risk of coronary and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.

Pharmacodynamics

Atorvastatin as well as some of its metabolites are pharmacologically active in humans. The liver is the primary site of action and the principal site of cholesterol synthesis and LDL clearance. Drug dosage rather than systemic drug concentration correlates better with LDL-C reduction. Individualization of drug dosage should be based on therapeutic response (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism

Absorption

Atorvastatin is rapidly absorbed after oral administration; maximum plasma concentrations occur within 1 to 2 hours. Extent of absorption increases in proportion to atorvastatin dose. The absolute bioavailability of atorvastatin (parent drug) is approximately 14% and the systemic availability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is approximately 30%. The low systemic availability is attributed to presystemic clearance in gastrointestinal mucosa and/or hepatic first-pass metabolism. Although food decreases the rate and extent of drug absorption by approximately 25% and 9%, respectively, as assessed by Cmax and AUC, LDL-C reduction is similar whether atorvastatin is given with or without food. Plasma atorvastatin concentrations are lower (approximately 30% for Cmax and AUC) following evening drug administration compared with morning. However, LDL-C reduction is the same regardless of the time of day of drug administration (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Distribution

Mean volume of distribution of atorvastatin is approximately 381 liters. Atorvastatin is ≥98% bound to plasma proteins. A blood/plasma ratio of approximately 0.25 indicates poor drug penetration into red blood cells. Based on observations in rats, atorvastatin is likely to be secreted in human milk (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, Pregnancy and Lactation, and PRECAUTIONS, Nursing Mothers).

Metabolism

Atorvastatin is extensively metabolized to ortho- and parahydroxylated derivatives and various beta-oxidation products. In vitro inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by ortho- and parahydroxylated metabolites is equivalent to that of atorvastatin. Approximately 70% of circulating inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is attributed to active metabolites. In vitro studies suggest the importance of atorvastatin metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, consistent with increased plasma concentrations of atorvastatin in humans following coadministration with erythromycin, a known inhibitor of this isozyme (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). In animals, the ortho-hydroxy metabolite undergoes further glucuronidation.

Excretion

Atorvastatin and its metabolites are eliminated primarily in bile following hepatic and/or extra-hepatic metabolism; however, the drug does not appear to undergo enterohepatic recirculation. Mean plasma elimination half-life of atorvastatin in humans is approximately 14 hours, but the half-life of inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is 20 to 30 hours due to the contribution of active metabolites. Less than 2% of a dose of atorvastatin is recovered in urine following oral administration.

Special Populations

Geriatric

Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin are higher (approximately 40% for Cmax and 30% for AUC) in healthy elderly subjects (age ≥65 years) than in young adults.Clinical data suggest a greater degree of LDL-lowering at any dose of drug in the elderly patient population compared to younger adults (see PRECAUTIONS section; Geriatric Use subsection).

Pediatric

Pharmacokinetic data in the pediatric population are not available.

Gender

Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin in women differ from those in men (approximately 20% higher for Cmax and 10% lower for AUC); however, there is no clinically significant difference in LDL-C reduction with Lipitor between men and women.

Renal Insufficiency

Renal disease has no influence on the plasma concentrations or LDL-C reduction of atorvastatin; thus, dose adjustment in patients with renal dysfunction is not necessary (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Hemodialysis

While studies have not been conducted in patients with end-stage renal disease, hemodialysis is not expected to significantly enhance clearance of atorvastatin since the drug is extensively bound to plasma proteins.

Hepatic Insufficiency

In patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease, plasma concentrations of atorvastatin are markedly increased. Cmax and AUC are each 4-fold greater in patients with Childs-Pugh A disease. Cmax and AUC are approximately 16-fold and 11-fold increased, respectively, in patients with Childs-Pugh B disease (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Clinical Studies

Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

In the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT), the effect of Lipitor (atorvastatin calcium) on fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease was assessed in 10,305 hypertensive patients 40–80 years of age (mean of 63 years), without a previous myocardial infarction and with TC levels ≤251 mg/dl (6.5 mmol/l). Additionally all patients had at least 3 of the following cardiovascular risk factors: male gender (81.1%), age >55 years (84.5%), smoking (33.2%), diabetes (24.3%), history of CHD in a first-degree relative (26%), TC:HDL >6 (14.3%), peripheral vascular disease (5.1%), left ventricular hypertrophy (14.4%), prior cerebrovascular event (9.8%), specific ECG abnormality (14.3%), proteinuria/albuminuria (62.4%). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study patients were treated with anti-hypertensive therapy (Goal BP <140/90 mm Hg for non-diabetic patients, <130/80 mm Hg for diabetic patients) and allocated to either Lipitor 10 mg daily (n=5168) or placebo (n=5137), using a covariate adaptive method which took into account the distribution of nine baseline characteristics of patients already enrolled and minimized the imbalance of those characteristics across the groups. Patients were followed for a median duration of 3.3 years.

The effect of 10 mg/day of Lipitor on lipid levels was similar to that seen in previous clinical trials.

Lipitor significantly reduced the rate of coronary events [either fatal coronary heart disease (46 events in the placebo group vs 40 events in the Lipitor group) or nonfatal MI (108 events in the placebo group vs 60 events in the Lipitor group)] with a relative risk reduction of 36% [(based on incidences of 1.9% for Lipitor vs 3.0% for placebo), p=0.0005 (see Figure 1)]. The risk reduction was consistent regardless of age, smoking status, obesity or presence of renal dysfunction. The effect of Lipitor was seen regardless of baseline LDL levels. Due to the small number of events, results for women were inconclusive.

Figure 1: Effect of Lipitor 10 mg/day on Cumulative Incidence of Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction or Coronary Heart Disease Death (in ASCOT-LLA)

Lipitor also significantly decreased the relative risk for revascularization procedures by 42%. Although the reduction of fatal and non-fatal strokes did not reach a pre-defined significance level (p=0.01), a favorable trend was observed with a 26% relative risk reduction (incidences of 1.7% for Lipitor and 2.3% for placebo). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for death due to cardiovascular causes (p=0.51) or noncardiovascular causes (p=0.17).

In the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), the effect of Lipitor (atorvastatin calcium) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints was assessed in 2838 subjects (94% White, 68% male), ages 40–75 with type 2 diabetes based on WHO criteria, without prior history of cardiovascular disease and with LDL≤ 160 mg/dL and TG ≤600 mg/dL. In addition to diabetes, subjects had 1 or more of the following risk factors: current smoking (23%), hypertension (80%), retinopathy (30%), or microalbuminuria (9%) or macroalbuminuria (3%). No subjects on hemodialysis were enrolled in the study. In this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, subjects were randomly allocated to either Lipitor 10 mg daily (1429) or placebo (1411) in a 1:1 ratio and were followed for a median duration of 3.9 years. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of any of the major cardiovascular events: myocardial infarction, acute CHD death, unstable angina, coronary revascularization, or stroke. The primary analysis was the time to first occurrence of the primary endpoint.

Baseline characteristics of subjects were: mean age of 62 years, mean HbA1c 7.7%; median LDL-C 120 mg/dL; median TC 207 mg/dL; median TG 151 mg/dL; median HDL-C 52mg/dL.

The effect of Lipitor 10 mg/ day on lipid levels was similar to that seen in previous clinical trials.

Lipitor significantly reduced the rate of major cardiovascular events (primary endpoint events) (83 events in the Lipitor group vs 127 events in the placebo group) with a relative risk reduction of 37%, HR 0.63, 95% CI (0.48,0.83) (p=0.001) (see Figure 2). An effect of Lipitor was seen regardless of age, sex, or baseline lipid levels.

Figure 2. Effect of Lipitor 10 mg/day on Time to Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Event (myocardial infarction, acute CHD death, unstable angina, coronary revascularization, or stroke) in CARDS.

Lipitor significantly reduced the risk of stroke by 48% (21 events in the Lipitor group vs 39 events in the placebo group), HR 0.52, 95% CI (0.31,0.89) (p=0.016) and reduced the risk of MI by 42% (38 events in the Lipitor group vs 64 events in the placebo group), HR 0.58, 95.1% CI (0.39, 0.86) (p=0.007). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for angina, revascularization procedures, and acute CHD death.

There were 61 deaths in the Lipitor group vs 82 deaths in the placebo group, (HR 0.73, p=0.059).

In the Treating to New Targets Study (TNT), the effect of Lipitor 80 mg/day vs. Lipitor 10 mg/day on the reduction in cardiovascular events was assessed in 10,001 subjects (94% white, 81% male, 38% ≥65 years) with clinically evident coronary heart disease who had achieved a target LDL-C level <130 mg/dL after completing an 8-week, open-label, run-in period with Lipitor 10 mg/day. Subjects were randomly assigned to either 10 mg/day or 80 mg/day of Lipitor and followed for a median duration of 4.9 years. The primary endpoint was the time-to-first occurrence of any of the following major cardiovascular events (MCVE): death due to CHD, non-fatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and fatal and non-fatal stroke. The mean LDL-C, TC, TG, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels at 12 weeks were 73, 145, 128, 98 and 47 mg/dL during treatment with 80 mg of Lipitor and 99, 177, 152, 129 and 48 mg/dL during treatment with 10 mg of Lipitor.

Treatment with Lipitor 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of MCVE (434 events in the 80mg/day group vs 548 events in the 10 mg/day group) with a relative risk reduction of 22%, HR 0.78, 95% CI (0.69,0.89), p=0.0002 (see Figure 3 and Table 1). The overall risk reduction was consistent regardless of age (<65, ≥65) or gender.

Figure 3. Effect of Lipitor 80 mg/day vs.10 mg/day on Time to Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events (TNT)

TABLE 1. Overview of Efficacy Results in TNT
Endpoint Atorvastatin 10
mg
(N=5006)
Atorvastatin 80
mg
(N=4995)
HR* (95%CI)
HR=hazard ratio; CHD=coronary heart disease; CI=confidence interval; MI=myocardial infarction; CHF=congestive heart failure;
CV=cardiovascular; PVD=peripheral vascular disease; CABG=coronary artery bypass graft
Confidence intervals for the Secondary Endpoints were not adjusted for multiple comparisons
*
Atorvastatin 80 mg: atorvastatin 10 mg
secondary endpoints not included in primary endpoint
component of other secondary endpoints
PRIMARY ENDPOINT n (%) n (%)
First major cardiovascular endpoint 548 (10.9) 434 (8.7) 0.78 (0.69, 0.89)
Components of the Primary Endpoint
  CHD death 127 (2.5) 101 (2.0) 0.80 (0.61, 1.03)
  Nonfatal, non-procedure related MI 308 (6.2) 243 (4.9) 0.78 (0.66, 0.93)
  Resuscitated cardiac arrest 26 (0.5) 25 (0.5) 0.96 (0.56, 1.67)
  Stroke (fatal and non-fatal) 155 (3.1) 117 (2.3) 0.75 (0.59, 0.96)
SECONDARY ENDPOINTS
First CHF with hospitalization 164 (3.3) 122 (2.4) 0.74 (0.59, 0.94)
First PVD endpoint 282 (5.6) 275 (5.5) 0.97 (0.83, 1.15)
First CABG or other coronary revascularization procedure 904 (18.1) 667 (13.4) 0.72 (0.65, 0.80)
First documented angina endpoint 615 (12.3) 545 (10.9) 0.88 (0.79, 0.99)
All cause mortality 282 (5.6) 284 (5.7) 1.01 (0.85, 1.19)
Components of all cause mortality
  Cardiovascular death 155 (3.1) 126 (2.5) 0.81 (0.64, 1.03)
  Noncardiovascular death 127 (2.5) 158 (3.2) 1.25 (0.99, 1.57)
    Cancer death 75 (1.5) 85 (1.7) 1.13 (0.83, 1.55)
    Other non-CV death 43 (0.9) 58 (1.2) 1.35 (0.91, 2.00)
    Suicide, homicide and other
    traumatic non-CV death
9 (0.2) 15 (0.3) 1.67 (0.73, 3.82)

Of the events that comprised the primary efficacy endpoint, treatment with Lipitor 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of nonfatal, non-procedure related MI and fatal and non-fatal stroke, but not CHD death or resuscitated cardiac arrest (Table 1). Of the predefined secondary endpoints, treatment with Lipitor 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of coronary revascularization, angina and hospitalization for heart failure, but not peripheral vascular disease. The reduction in the rate of CHF with hospitalization was only observed in the 8% of patients with a prior history of CHF.

There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality (Table 1). The proportions of subjects who experienced cardiovascular death, including the components of CHD death and fatal stroke were numerically smaller in the Lipitor 80 mg group than in the Lipitor 10 mg treatment group. The proportions of subjects who experienced noncardiovascular death were numerically larger in the Lipitor 80 mg group than in the Lipitor 10 mg treatment group.

In the Incremental Decrease in Endpoints Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Study (IDEAL), treatment with Lipitor 80 mg/day was compared to treatment with simvastatin 20–40 mg/day in 8,888 subjects up to 80 years of age with a history of CHD to assess whether reduction in CV risk could be achieved. Patients were mainly male (81%), white (99%) with an average age of 61.7 years, and an average LDL-C of 121.5 mg/dL at randomization; 76% were on statin therapy. In this prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial with no run-in period, subjects were followed for a median duration of 4.8 years. The mean LDL-C, TC, TG, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels at Week 12 were 78, 145, 115, 45 and 100 mg/dL during treatment with 80 mg of Lipitor and 105, 179, 142, 47 and 132 mg/dL during treatment with 20–40 mg of simvastatin.

There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for the primary endpoint, the rate of first major coronary event (fatal CHD, nonfatal MI and resuscitated cardiac arrest): 411 (9.3%) in the Lipitor 80 mg/day group vs. 463 (10.4%) in the simvastatin 20–40 mg/day group, HR 0.89, 95% CI ( 0.78,1.01), p=0.07.

There were no significant differences between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality: 366 (8.2%) in the Lipitor 80 mg/day group vs. 374 (8.4%) in the simvastatin 20–40 mg/day group. The proportions of subjects who experienced CV or non-CV death were similar for the Lipitor 80 mg group and the simvastatin 20–40 mg group.

Hypercholesterolemia (Heterozygous Familial and Nonfamilial) and Mixed Dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb)

Lipitor reduces total-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apo B, and TG, and increases HDL-C in patients with hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia. Therapeutic response is seen within 2 weeks, and maximum response is usually achieved within 4 weeks and maintained during chronic therapy.

Lipitor is effective in a wide variety of patient populations with hypercholesterolemia, with and without hypertriglyceridemia, in men and women, and in the elderly. Experience in pediatric patients has been limited to patients with homozygous FH. In two multicenter, placebo-controlled, dose-response studies in patients with hypercholesterolemia, Lipitor given as a single dose over 6 weeks significantly reduced total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG (Pooled results are provided in Table 2).

TABLE 2. Dose-Response in Patients With Primary Hypercholesterolemia (Adjusted Mean % Change From Baseline)*
Dose N TC LDL-C Apo B TG HDL C Non-HDL-C/HDL-C
*
Results are pooled from 2 dose-response studies.
Placebo 21 4 4 3 10 -3 7
10 22 -29 -39 -32 -19 6 -34
20 20 -33 -43 -35 -26 9 -41
40 21 -37 -50 -42 -29 6 -45
80 23 -45 -60 -50 -37 5 -53

In patients with Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb hyperlipoproteinemia pooled from 24 controlled trials, the median (25th and 75th percentile) percent changes from baseline in HDL-C for atorvastatin 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg were 6.4 (-1.4, 14), 8.7(0, 17), 7.8(0, 16), and 5.1 (-2.7, 15), respectively. Additionally, analysis of the pooled data demonstrated consistent and significant decreases in total-C, LDL-C, TG, total-C/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C.

In three multicenter, double-blind studies in patients with hypercholesterolemia, Lipitor was compared to other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. After randomization, patients were treated for 16 weeks with either Lipitor 10 mg per day or a fixed dose of the comparative agent (Table 3).

TABLE 3. Mean Percent Change From Baseline at Endpoint (Double-Blind, Randomized, Active-Controlled Trials)
Treatment
(Daily Dose)
N Total-C LDL-C Apo B TG HDL-C Non-HDL-C/HDL-C
*
Significantly different from lovastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤0.05
A negative value for the 95% CI for the difference between treatments favors atorvastatin for all except HDL-C, for which a positive value favors atorvastatin. If the range does not include 0, this indicates a statistically significant difference.
Significantly different from pravastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤0.05
§
Significantly different from simvastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤0.05
Study 1
Atorvastatin 10 mg 707 -27* -36* -28* -17* +7 -37*
Lovastatin 20 mg 191 -19 -27 -20 - 6 +7 -28
95% CI for Diff -9.2, -6.5 -10.7, -7.1 -10.0, -6.5 -15.2, -7.1 -1.7, 2.0 -11.1, -7.1
Study 2
Atorvastatin 10 mg 222 -25 -35 -27 -17 +6 -36
Pravastatin 20 mg 77 -17 -23 -17 - 9 +8 -28
95% CI for Diff -10.8, -6.1 -14.5, -8.2 -13.4, -7.4 -14.1, -0.7 -4.9, 1.6 -11.5, -4.1
Study 3
Atorvastatin 10 mg 132 -29§ -37§ -34§ -23§ +7 -39§
Simvastatin 10 mg 45 -24 -30 -30 -15 +7 -33
95% CI for Diff -8.7, -2.7 -10.1, -2.6 -8.0, -1.1 -15.1, -0.7 -4.3, 3.9 -9.6, -1.9

The impact on clinical outcomes of the differences in lipid-altering effects between treatments shown in Table 3 is not known. Table 3 does not contain data comparing the effects of atorvastatin 10 mg and higher doses of lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin. The drugs compared in the studies summarized in the table are not necessarily interchangeable.

Hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson Type IV)

The response to Lipitor in 64 patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia treated across several clinical trials is shown in the table below. For the atorvastatin-treated patients, median (min, max) baseline TG level was 565 (267–1502).

TABLE 4. Combined Patients With Isolated Elevated TG: Median (min, max) Percent Changes From Baseline
Placebo
(N=12)
Atorvastatin 10 mg
(N=37)
Atorvastatin 20 mg
(N=13)
Atorvastatin 80 mg
(N=14)
Triglycerides -12.4 (-36.6, 82.7) -41.0 (-76.2, 49.4) -38.7 (-62.7, 29.5) -51.8 (-82.8, 41.3)
Total-C -2.3 (-15.5, 24.4) -28.2 (-44.9, -6.8) -34.9 (-49.6, -15.2) -44.4 (-63.5, -3.8)
LDL-C 3.6 (-31.3, 31.6) -26.5 (-57.7, 9.8) -30.4 (-53.9, 0.3) -40.5 (-60.6, -13.8)
HDL-C 3.8 (-18.6, 13.4) 13.8 (-9.7, 61.5) 11.0 (-3.2, 25.2) 7.5 (-10.8, 37.2)
VLDL-C -1.0 (-31.9, 53.2) -48.8 (-85.8, 57.3) -44.6 (-62.2, -10.8) -62.0 (-88.2, 37.6)
non-HDL-C -2.8 (-17.6, 30.0) -33.0 (-52.1, -13.3) -42.7 (-53.7, -17.4) -51.5 (-72.9, -4.3)

Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III)

The results of an open-label crossover study of 16 patients (genotypes: 14 apo E2/E2 and 2 apo E3/E2) with dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) are shown in the table below.

TABLE 5. Open-Label Crossover Study of 16 Patients With Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III)
Median % Change (min, max)
Median (min, max) at Baseline (mg/dL) Atorvastatin 10 mg Atorvastatin 80 mg
Total-C 442 (225, 1320) -37 (-85, 17) -58 (-90, -31)
Triglycerides 678 (273, 5990) -39 (-92, -8) -53 (-95, -30)
IDL-C + VLDL-C 215 (111, 613) -32 (-76, 9) -63 (-90, -8)
non-HDL-C 411 (218, 1272) -43 (-87, -19) -64 (-92, -36)

Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

In a study without a concurrent control group, 29 patients ages 6 to 37 years with homozygous FH received maximum daily doses of 20 to 80 mg of Lipitor. The mean LDL-C reduction in this study was 18%. Twenty-five patients with a reduction in LDL-C had a mean response of 20% (range of 7% to 53%, median of 24%); the remaining 4 patients had 7% to 24% increases in LDL-C. Five of the 29 patients had absent LDL-receptor function. Of these, 2 patients also had a portacaval shunt and had no significant reduction in LDL-C. The remaining 3 receptor-negative patients had a mean LDL-C reduction of 22%.

Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Pediatric Patients

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study followed by an open-label phase, 187 boys and postmenarchal girls 10–17 years of age (mean age 14.1 years) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or severe hypercholesterolemia were randomized to Lipitor (n=140) or placebo (n=47) for 26 weeks and then all received Lipitor for 26 weeks. Inclusion in the study required 1) a baseline LDL-C level ≥ 190 mg/dL or 2) a baseline LDL-C ≥ 160 mg/dL and positive family history of FH or documented premature cardiovascular disease in a first- or second-degree relative. The mean baseline LDL-C value was 218.6 mg/dL (range: 138.5–385.0 mg/dL) in the Lipitor group compared to 230.0 mg/dL (range: 160.0–324.5 mg/dL) in the placebo group. The dosage of Lipitor (once daily) was 10 mg for the first 4 weeks and up-titrated to 20 mg if the LDL-C level was > 130 mg/dL. The number of Lipitor-treated patients who required up-titration to 20 mg after Week 4 during the double-blind phase was 80 (57.1%).

Lipitor significantly decreased plasma levels of total-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B during the 26 week double-blind phase (see Table 6).

TABLE 6 Lipid-altering Effects of Lipitor in Adolescent Boys and Girls with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia or Severe Hypercholesterolemia (Mean Percent Change from Baseline at Endpoint in Intention-to-Treat Population)
DOSAGE N Total-C LDL-C HDL-C TG Apolipoprotein B
Placebo 47 -1.5 -0.4 -1.9 1.0 0.7
Lipitor 140 -31.4 -39.6 2.8 -12.0 -34.0

The mean achieved LDL-C value was 130.7 mg/dL (range: 70.0–242.0 mg/dL) in the Lipitor group compared to 228.5 mg/dL (range: 152.0–385.0 mg/dL) in the placebo group during the 26 week double-blind phase.

The safety and efficacy of doses above 20 mg have not been studied in controlled trials in children. The long-term efficacy of Lipitor therapy in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established.

Indications and Usage for Lipitor

Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

In adult patients without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as age, smoking, hypertension, low HDL-C, or a family history of early coronary heart disease, Lipitor is indicated to:

  • Reduce the risk of myocardial infarction
  • Reduce the risk of stroke
  • Reduce the risk for revascularization procedures and angina

In patients with type 2 diabetes, and without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as retinopathy, albuminuria, smoking, or hypertension, Lipitor is indicated to:

  • Reduce the risk of myocardial infarction
  • Reduce the risk of stroke

In patients with clinically evident coronary heart disease, Lipitor is indicated to:

  • Reduce the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction
  • Reduce the risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke
  • Reduce the risk for revascularization procedures
  • Reduce the risk of hospitalization for CHF
  • Reduce the risk of angina

Hypercholesterolemia

Lipitor is indicated:

  1. as an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG levels and to increase HDL-C in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb);
  2. as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of patients with elevated serum TG levels(Fredrickson Type IV);
  3. for the treatment of patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) who do not respond adequately to diet;
  4. to reduce total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (eg, LDL apheresis) or if such treatments are unavailable;
  5. as an adjunct to diet to reduce total-C, LDL-C, and apo B levels in boys and postmenarchal girls, 10 to 17 years of age, with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present:
    a.
    LDL-C remains ≥ 190 mg/dL or
    b.
    LDL-C remains ≥ 160 mg/dL and:
    • there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease or
    • two or more other CVD risk factors are present in the pediatric patient

Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be a component of multiple-risk-factor intervention in individuals at increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Lipid-altering agents should be used in addition to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol only when the response to diet and other nonpharmacological measures has been inadequate (see National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Guidelines, summarized in Table 7).

TABLE 7. NCEP Treatment Guidelines: LDL-C Goals and Cutpoints for Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes and Drug Therapy in Different Risk Categories
Risk Category LDL-C Goal
(mg/dL)
LDL Level at Which to Initiate Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (mg/dL) LDL Level at Which to Consider Drug Therapy (mg/dL)
*
CHD, coronary heart disease
Some authorities recommend use of LDL-lowering drugs in this category if an LDL-C level of < 100 mg/dL cannot be achieved by therapeutic lifestyle changes. Others prefer use of drugs that primarily modify triglycerides and HDL-C, e.g., nicotinic acid or fibrate. Clinical judgement also may call for deferring drug therapy in this subcategory.
Almost all people with 0–1 risk factor have 10-year risk <10%; thus, 10-year risk assessment in people with 0–1 risk factor is not necessary.
CHD * or CHD risk equivalents
(10-year risk >20%)
<100 ≥100 ≥130
(100–129: drug optional)
2+ Risk Factors
(10-year risk ≤20%)
<130 ≥130 10-year risk 10%–20%: ≥130
10-year risk <10%: ≥ 160
0–1 Risk factor <160 ≥160 ≥190
(160–189: LDL-lowering drug optional)

After the LDL-C goal has been achieved, if the TG is still ≥200 mg/dL, non-HDL-C (total-C minus HDL-C) becomes a secondary target of therapy. Non-HDL-C goals are set 30 mg/dL higher than LDL-C goals for each risk category.

Prior to initiating therapy with Lipitor, secondary causes for hypercholesterolemia (eg, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, dysproteinemias, obstructive liver disease, other drug therapy, and alcoholism) should be excluded, and a lipid profile performed to measure total-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. For patients with TG <400 mg/dL (<4.5 mmol/L), LDL-C can be estimated using the following equat

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