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All about: Mobic

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Generic Name: meloxicam
Dosage Form: Tablets and oral suspension

ATTENTION DISPENSER: Accompanying Medication Guide must be dispensed with this product.

Prescribing Information

Warning

Cardiovascular Risk

  • NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk (see WARNINGS and CLINICAL TRIALS).

  • Mobic tablets/oral suspension is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

Gastrointestinal Risk

  • NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).

Mobic Description

Meloxicam, an oxicam derivative, is a member of the enolic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Each pastel yellow Mobic tablet contains 7.5 mg or 15 mg meloxicam for oral administration. Each bottle of Mobic oral suspension contains 7.5 mg meloxicam per 5 mL. Meloxicam is chemically designated as 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide. The molecular weight is 351.4. Its empirical formula is C14H13N3O4S2 and it has the following structural formula.

Meloxicam is a pastel yellow solid, practically insoluble in water, with higher solubility observed in strong acids and bases. It is very slightly soluble in methanol. Meloxicam has an apparent partition coefficient (log P)app = 0.1 in n-octanol/buffer pH 7.4. Meloxicam has pKa values of 1.1 and 4.2.

Mobic is available as a tablet for oral administration containing 7.5 mg or 15 mg meloxicam, and as an oral suspension containing 7.5 mg meloxicam per 5 mL.

The inactive ingredients in Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets include colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone and sodium citrate dihydrate.

The inactive ingredients in Mobic® (meloxicam) oral suspension include colloidal silicon dioxide, hydroxyethylcellulose, sorbitol, glycerol, xylitol, monobasic sodium phosphate (dihydrate), saccharin sodium, sodium benzoate, citric acid (monohydrate), raspberry flavor, and purified water.

Mobic - Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in animal models. The mechanism of action of meloxicam, like that of other NSAIDs, may be related to prostaglandin synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) inhibition.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of meloxicam capsules was 89% following a single oral dose of 30 mg compared with 30 mg IV bolus injection. Following single intravenous doses, dose-proportional pharmacokinetics were shown in the range of 5 mg to 60 mg. After multiple oral doses the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam capsules were dose-proportional over the range of 7.5 mg to 15 mg. Mean Cmax was achieved within four to five hours after a 7.5 mg meloxicam tablet was taken under fasted conditions, indicating a prolonged drug absorption. With multiple dosing, steady state concentrations were reached by Day 5. A second meloxicam concentration peak occurs around 12 to 14 hours post-dose suggesting biliary recycling.

Meloxicam oral suspension doses of 7.5 mg/5 mL and 15 mg/10 mL have been found to be bioequivalent to meloxicam 7.5 mg and 15 mg capsules, respectively. Meloxicam capsules have been shown to be bioequivalent to Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets.

Table 1 Single Dose and Steady State Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Oral 7.5 mg and 15 mg Meloxicam (Mean and % CV)1
Steady State Single Dose
Pharmacokinetic
Parameters
(% CV)
Healthy
male adults
(Fed)2
Elderly
males
(Fed)2
Elderly
females
(Fed)2
Renal
failure
(Fasted)
Hepatic
insufficiency
(Fasted)
7.5 mg3
tablets
15 mg
capsules
15 mg
capsules
15 mg
capsules
15 mg
capsules
N 18 5 8 12 12
1The parameter values in the Table are from various studies
2not under high fat conditions
3Mobic tablets
4 Vz/f =Dose/(AUC•Kel)
Cmax  [µg/mL] 1.05 (20) 2.3 (59) 3.2 (24) 0.59 (36) 0.84 (29)
tmax   [h] 4.9 (8) 5 (12) 6 (27) 4 (65) 10 (87)
t1/2    [h] 20.1 (29) 21 (34) 24 (34) 18 (46) 16 (29)
CL/f   [mL/min] 8.8 (29) 9.9 (76) 5.1 (22) 19 (43) 11 (44)
Vz/f4  [L] 14.7 (32) 15 (42) 10 (30) 26 (44) 14 (29)

Food and Antacid Effects

Administration of meloxicam capsules following a high fat breakfast (75 g of fat) resulted in mean peak drug levels (i.e., Cmax) being increased by approximately 22% while the extent of absorption (AUC) was unchanged. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was achieved between 5 and 6 hours. In comparison, neither the AUC nor the Cmax values for meloxicam suspension were affected following a similar high fat meal, while mean Tmax values were increased to approximately 7 hours. No pharmacokinetic interaction was detected with concomitant administration of antacids. Based on these results, Mobic tablets/oral suspension can be administered without regard to timing of meals or concomitant administration of antacids.

Distribution

The mean volume of distribution (Vss) of meloxicam is approximately 10 L. Meloxicam is ∼ 99.4% bound to human plasma proteins (primarily albumin) within the therapeutic dose range. The fraction of protein binding is independent of drug concentration, over the clinically relevant concentration range, but decreases to ∼ 99% in patients with renal disease. Meloxicam penetration into human red blood cells, after oral dosing, is less than 10%. Following a radiolabeled dose, over 90% of the radioactivity detected in the plasma was present as unchanged meloxicam.

Meloxicam concentrations in synovial fluid, after a single oral dose, range from 40% to 50% of those in plasma. The free fraction in synovial fluid is 2.5 times higher than in plasma, due to the lower albumin content in synovial fluid as compared to plasma. The significance of this penetration is unknown.

Metabolism

Meloxicam is almost completely metabolized to four pharmacologically inactive metabolites. The major metabolite, 5′-carboxy meloxicam (60% of dose), from P-450 mediated metabolism was formed by oxidation of an intermediate metabolite 5′ hydroxymethyl meloxicam which is also excreted to a lesser extent (9% of dose). In vitro studies indicate that cytochrome P-450 2C9 plays an important role in this metabolic pathway with a minor contribution of the CYP 3A4 isozyme. Patients’ peroxidase activity is probably responsible for the other two metabolites which account for 16% and 4% of the administered dose, respectively.

Excretion

Meloxicam excretion is predominantly in the form of metabolites, and occurs to equal extents in the urine and feces. Only traces of the unchanged parent compound are excreted in the urine (0.2%) and feces (1.6%). The extent of the urinary excretion was confirmed for unlabeled multiple 7.5 mg doses: 0.5%, 6% and 13% of the dose were found in urine in the form of meloxicam, and the 5′-hydroxymethyl and 5′-carboxy metabolites, respectively. There is significant biliary and/or enteral secretion of the drug. This was demonstrated when oral administration of cholestyramine following a single IV dose of meloxicam decreased the AUC of meloxicam by 50%.

The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) ranges from 15 hours to 20 hours. The elimination half-life is constant across dose levels indicating linear metabolism within the therapeutic dose range. Plasma clearance ranges from 7 to 9 mL/min.

Special Populations

Pediatric

After single (0.25 mg/kg) dose administration and after achieving steady-state (0.375 mg/kg/day), there was a general trend of approximately 30% lower exposure in younger patients (2-6 years old) as compared to the older patients (7-16 years old). The older patients had meloxicam exposures similar (single dose) or slightly reduced (steady-state) to those in the adult patients, when using AUC values normalized to a dose of 0.25 mg/kg (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). The meloxicam mean (SD) elimination half-life was 15.2 (10.1) and 13.0 hours (3.0) for the 2-6 year old patients, and 7-16 year old patients, respectively.

In a covariate analysis, utilizing population pharmacokinetics body-weight, but not age, was the single predictive covariate for differences in the meloxicam apparent oral plasma clearance. The body-weight normalized apparent oral clearance values were adequate predictors of meloxicam exposure in pediatric patients.

The pharmacokinetics of Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension in pediatric patients under 2 years of age have not been investigated.

Geriatric

Elderly males (≥ 65 years of age) exhibited meloxicam plasma concentrations and steady state pharmacokinetics similar to young males. Elderly females (≥ 65 years of age) had a 47% higher AUCss and 32% higher Cmax,ss as compared to younger females (≤ 55 years of age) after body weight normalization. Despite the increased total concentrations in the elderly females, the adverse event profile was comparable for both elderly patient populations. A smaller free fraction was found in elderly female patients in comparison to elderly male patients.

Gender

Young females exhibited slightly lower plasma concentrations relative to young males. After single doses of 7.5 mg Mobic, the mean elimination half-life was 19.5 hours for the female group as compared to 23.4 hours for the male group. At steady state, the data were similar (17.9 hours vs. 21.4 hours). This pharmacokinetic difference due to gender is likely to be of little clinical importance. There was linearity of pharmacokinetics and no appreciable difference in the Cmax or Tmax across genders.

Hepatic Insufficiency

Following a single 15 mg dose of meloxicam there was no marked difference in plasma concentrations in subjects with mild (Child-Pugh Class I) and moderate (Child-Pugh Class II) hepatic impairment compared to healthy volunteers. Protein binding of meloxicam was not affected by hepatic insufficiency. No dose adjustment is necessary in mild to moderate hepatic insufficiency. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class III) have not been adequately studied.

Renal Insufficiency

Meloxicam pharmacokinetics have been investigated in subjects with different degrees of renal insufficiency. Total drug plasma concentrations decreased with the degree of renal impairment while free AUC values were similar. Total clearance of meloxicam increased in these patients probably due to the increase in free fraction leading to an increased metabolic clearance. There is no need for dose adjustment in patients with mild to moderate renal failure (CrCL >15 mL/min). Patients with severe renal insufficiency have not been adequately studied. The use of Mobic tablets/oral suspension in subjects with severe renal impairment is not recommended (see WARNINGS, Advanced Renal Disease).

Hemodialysis

Following a single dose of meloxicam, the free Cmax plasma concentrations were higher in patients with renal failure on chronic hemodialysis (1% free fraction) in comparison to healthy volunteers (0.3% free fraction). Hemodialysis did not lower the total drug concentration in plasma; therefore, additional doses are not necessary after hemodialysis. Meloxicam is not dialyzable.

Clinical Trials

Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

The use of Mobic for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee and hip was evaluated in a 12-week double-blind controlled trial. Mobic (3.75 mg, 7.5 mg and 15 mg daily) was compared to placebo. The four primary endpoints were investigator’s global assessment, patient global assessment, patient pain assessment, and total WOMAC score (a self-administered questionnaire addressing pain, function and stiffness). Patients on Mobic 7.5 mg daily and Mobic 15 mg daily showed significant improvement in each of these endpoints compared with placebo.

The use of Mobic for the management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis was evaluated in six double-blind, active-controlled trials outside the U.S. ranging from 4 weeks to 6 months duration. In these trials, the efficacy of Mobic, in doses of 7.5 mg/day and 15 mg/day, was comparable to piroxicam 20 mg/day and diclofenac SR 100 mg/day and consistent with the efficacy seen in the U.S. trial.

The use of Mobic for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis was evaluated in a 12-week double-blind, controlled multinational trial. Mobic (7.5 mg, 15 mg and 22.5 mg daily) was compared to placebo. The primary endpoint in this study was the ACR20 response rate, a composite measure of clinical, laboratory and functional measures of RA response. Patients receiving Mobic 7.5 mg and 15 mg daily showed significant improvement in the primary endpoint compared with placebo. No incremental benefit was observed with the 22.5 mg dose compared to the 15 mg dose.

Higher doses of Mobic (22.5 mg and greater) have been associated with an increased risk of serious GI events; therefore the daily dose of Mobic should not exceed 15 mg.

Pauciarticular and Polyarticular Course Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)

The use of Mobic for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of pauciarticular or polyarticular course Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in patients 2 years of age and older was evaluated in two 12-week, double-blind, parallel-arm, active-controlled trials. Both studies included three arms: naproxen and two doses of meloxicam. In both studies, meloxicam dosing began at 0.125 mg/kg/day (7.5 mg maximum) or 0.25 mg/kg/day (15 mg maximum), and naproxen dosing began at 10 mg/kg/day. One study used these doses throughout the 12-week dosing period, while the other incorporated a titration after 4 weeks to doses of 0.25 mg/kg/day and 0.375 mg/kg/day (22.5 mg maximum) of meloxicam and 15 mg/kg/day of naproxen.

The efficacy analysis used the ACR Pediatric 30 responder definition, a composite of parent and investigator assessments, counts of swollen active joints and joints with limited range of motion, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The proportion of responders were similar in all three groups in both studies, and no difference was observed between the meloxicam dose groups.

Indications and Usage for Mobic

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension and other treatment options before deciding to use Mobic tablets/oral suspension. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

Mobic tablets/oral suspension is indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Mobic tablets/oral suspension is indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of pauciarticular or polyarticular course Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in patients 2 years of age and older.

Contraindications

Mobic tablets/oral suspension is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to meloxicam.

Mobic tablets/oral suspension should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid Reactions, and PRECAUTIONS, Pre-existing Asthma).

Mobic tablets/oral suspension is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

Warnings

Cardiovascular Effects

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal (GI) Effects - Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).

Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Hypertension

NSAIDs, including Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including Mobic tablets/oral suspension, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

Congestive Heart Failure and Edema

Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Mobic tablets/oral suspension should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention, hypertension, or heart failure.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Effects - Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation

NSAIDs, including Mobic tablets/oral suspension, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs, occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2-4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.

NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high-risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.

Renal Effects

Long-term administration of NSAIDs including Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension, can result in renal papillary necrosis, renal insufficiency, acute renal failure, and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

Advanced Renal Disease

No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of Mobic tablets/oral suspension in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with Mobic tablets/oral suspension is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If Mobic tablets/oral suspension therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient's renal function is advisable.

Anaphylactoid Reactions

As with other NSAIDS, anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients without known prior exposure to Mobic tablets/oral suspension. Mobic tablets/oral suspension should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS, Pre-existing Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.

Skin Reactions

NSAIDs, including Mobic tablets/oral suspension, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Pregnancy

In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, Mobic tablets/oral suspension should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Precautions

General

Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of Mobic tablets/oral suspension in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Hepatic Effects

Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including Mobic tablets/oral suspension. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported.

A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with Mobic tablets/oral suspension. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), Mobic tablets/oral suspension should be discontinued.

Renal Effects

Caution should be used when initiating treatment with Mobic tablets/oral suspension in patients with considerable dehydration. It is advisable to rehydrate patients first and then start therapy with Mobic tablets/oral suspension. Caution is also recommended in patients with pre-existing kidney disease (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects and Advanced Renal Disease).

The extent to which metabolites may accumulate in patients with renal failure has not been studied with Mobic tablets/oral suspension. Because some Mobic tablets/oral suspension metabolites are excreted by the kidney, patients with significantly impaired renal function should be more closely monitored.

Hematological Effects

Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including Mobic tablets/oral suspension. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including Mobic tablets/oral suspension, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.

Drugs which inhibit the biosynthesis of prostaglandins may interfere to some extent with platelet function and vascular responses to bleeding.

NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.

Pre-existing Asthma

Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, Mobic tablets/oral suspension should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing asthma.

Information for Patients

Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.

  1. Mobic tablets/oral suspension, like other NSAIDs, may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow up (see WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Effects).

  2. Mobic tablets/oral suspension, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal (GI) Effects - Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).

  3. Mobic tablets/oral suspension, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS, and TEN, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible.

  4. Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians.

  5. Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy.

  6. Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS).

  7. In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Laboratory Tests

Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, Mobic tablets/oral suspension should be discontinued.

Drug Interactions

ACE-inhibitors

Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE inhibitors.

Aspirin

When Mobic tablets/oral suspension is administered with aspirin (1000 mg TID) to healthy volunteers, it tended to increase the AUC (10%) and Cmax (24%) of meloxicam. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs concomitant administration of meloxicam and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential for increased adverse effects.

Concomitant administration of low-dose aspirin with Mobic tablets/oral suspension may result in an increased rate of GI ulceration or other complications, compared to use of Mobic tablets/oral suspension alone. Mobic tablets/oral suspension is not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis.

Cholestyramine

Pretreatment for four days with cholestyramine significantly increased the clearance of meloxicam by 50%. This resulted in a decrease in t1/2, from 19.2 hours to 12.5 hours, and a 35% reduction in AUC. This suggests the existence of a recirculation pathway for meloxicam in the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical relevance of this interaction has not been established.

Cimetidine

Concomitant administration of 200 mg cimetidine QID did not alter the single-dose pharmacokinetics of 30 mg meloxicam.

Digoxin

Meloxicam 15 mg once daily for 7 days did not alter the plasma concentration profile of digoxin after β-acetyldigoxin administration for 7 days at clinical doses. In vitro testing found no protein binding drug interaction between digoxin and meloxicam.

Furosemide

Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, have shown that NSAIDs can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. Studies with furosemide agents and meloxicam have not demonstrated a reduction in natriuretic effect. Furosemide single and multiple dose pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are not affected by multiple doses of meloxicam. Nevertheless, during concomitant therapy with Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension, patients should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

Lithium

In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean pre-dose lithium concentration and AUC were increased by 21% in subjects receiving lithium doses ranging from 804 to 1072 mg BID with meloxicam 15 mg QD as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by Mobic tablets/oral suspension. Patients on lithium treatment should be closely monitored for signs of lithium toxicity when Mobic tablets/oral suspension is introduced, adjusted, or withdrawn.

Methotrexate

NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

A study in 13 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients evaluated the effects of multiple doses of meloxicam on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate taken once weekly. Meloxicam did not have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of single doses of methotrexate. In vitro, methotrexate did not displace meloxicam from its human serum binding sites.

Warfarin

The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.

Anticoagulant activity should be monitored, particularly in the first few days after initiating or changing Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension therapy in patients receiving warfarin or similar agents, since these patients are at an increased risk of bleeding. The effect of meloxicam on the anticoagulant effect of warfarin was studied in a group of healthy subjects receiving daily doses of warfarin that produced an INR (International Normalized Ratio) between 1.2 and 1.8. In these subjects, meloxicam did not alter warfarin pharmacokinetics and the average anticoagulant effect of warfarin as determined by prothrombin time. However, one subject showed an increase in INR from 1.5 to 2.1. Caution should be used when administering Mobic tablets/oral suspension with warfarin since patients on warfarin may experience changes in INR and an increased risk of bleeding complications when a new medication is introduced.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No carcinogenic effect of meloxicam was observed in rats given oral doses up to 0.8 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.4-fold the human dose at 15 mg/day for a 50 kg adult based on body surface area conversion) for 104 weeks or in mice given oral doses up to 8.0 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.2-fold the human dose, as noted above) for 99 weeks.

Meloxicam was not mutagenic in an Ames assay, or clastogenic in a chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes and an in vivo micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow.

Meloxicam did not impair male and female fertility in rats at oral doses up to 9 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively (4.9-fold and 2.5-fold the human dose, as noted above). However, an increased incidence of embryolethality at oral doses ≥ 1 mg/kg/day (0.5-fold the human dose, as noted above) was observed in rats when dams were given meloxicam 2 weeks prior to mating and during early embryonic development.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C.

Meloxicam caused an increased incidence of septal defect of the heart, a rare event, at an oral dose of 60 mg/kg/day (64.5-fold the human dose at 15 mg/day for a 50 kg adult based on body surface area conversion) and embryolethality at oral doses ≥ 5 mg/kg/day (5.4-fold the human dose, as noted above) when rabbits were treated throughout organogenesis. Meloxicam was not teratogenic in rats up to an oral dose of 4 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.2-fold the human dose, as noted above) throughout organogenesis. An increased incidence of stillbirths was observed when rats were given oral doses ≥ 1 mg/kg/day throughout organogenesis. Meloxicam crosses the placental barrier. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Mobic® (meloxicam) tablets/oral suspension should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided.

Meloxicam caused a reduction in birth index, live births, and neonatal survival at oral doses ≥ 0.125 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.07-fold the human dose at 15 mg/day for a 50 kg adult based on body surface area conversion) when rats were treated during the late gestation and lactation period. No studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of meloxicam on the closure of the ductus arteriosus in humans; use of meloxicam during the third trimester of pregnancy should be avoided.

Labor and Delivery

Studies in rats with meloxicam, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, showed an increased incidence of stillbirths, prolonged delivery, and delayed parturition at oral dosages ≥ 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5-fold the human dose at 15 mg/day for a 50 kg adult based on body surface area conversion), and decreased pup survival at an oral dose of 4 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.1-fold the human dose, as noted above) throughout organogenesis. Similar findings were observed in rats receiving oral dosages ≥ 0.125 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.07-fold the human dose, as noted above) during late gestation and the lactation period.

The effects of Mobic tablets/oral suspension on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk however, meloxicam was excreted in the milk of lactating rats at concentrations higher than those in plasma. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Mobic tablets/oral suspension, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of meloxicam in pediatric JRA patients from 2 to 17 years of age has been evaluated in three clinical trials (see CLINICAL TRIALS, ADVERSE REACTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections).

Geriatric Use

As with any NSAID, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older).

Adverse Reactions

Adults

Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

The Mobic Phase 2/3 clinical trial database includes 10,122 OA patients and 1012 RA patients treated with Mobic 7.5 mg/day, 3,505 OA patients and 1351 RA patients treated with Mobic 15 mg/day. Mobic at these doses was administered to 661 patients for at least 6 months and to 312 patients for at least one year. Approximately 10,500 of these patients were treated in ten placebo and/or active-controlled osteoarthritis trials and 2363 of these patients were treated in ten placebo and/or active-controlled rheumatoid arthritis trials. Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events were the most frequently reported adverse events in all treatment groups across Mobic trials.

A 12-week multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial was conducted in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip to compare the efficacy and safety of Mobic with placebo and with an active control. Two 12-week multicenter, double-blind, randomized trials were conducted in patients with rheumatoid arthritis to compare the efficacy and safety of Mobic with placebo.

Table 2a depicts adverse events that occurred in ≥ 2% of the Mobic treatment groups in a 12-week placebo and active-controlled osteoarthritis trial.

Table 2b depicts adverse events that occurred in ≥ 2% of the Mobic treatment groups in two 12-week placebo controlled rheumatoid arthritis trials.

Table 2a Adverse Events (%) Occurring in ≥ 2% of Mobic Patients in a 12-Week Osteoarthritis Placebo and Active-Controlled Trial
Placebo Mobic
7.5 mg daily
Mobic
15 mg daily
Diclofenac
100 mg daily
No. of Patients 157 154 156 153
1 WHO preferred terms edema, edema dependent, edema peripheral and edema legs combined
2 WHO preferred terms rash, rash erythematous and rash maculo-papular combined
Gastrointestinal 17.2 20.1 17.3 28.1
   Abdominal Pain 2.5 1.9 2.6 1.3
   Diarrhea 3.8 7.8 3.2 9.2
   Dyspepsia 4.5 4.5 4.5 6.5
   Flatulence 4.5 3.2 3.2 3.9
   Nausea 3.2 3.9 3.8 7.2
Body as a Whole
   Accident Household 1.9 4.5 3.2 2.6
   Edema1 2.5 1.9 4.5 3.3
   Fall 0.6 2.6 0.0 1.3
   Influenza-Like Symptoms 5.1 4.5 5.8 2.6
Central and Peripheral
Nervous System
   Dizziness 3.2 2.6 3.8 2.0
   Headache 10.2 7.8 8.3 5.9
Respiratory
   Pharyngitis 1.3 0.6 3.2 1.3
   Upper Respiratory Tract
   Infection
1.9 3.2 1.9 3.3
Skin
   Rash2 2.5 2.6 0.6 2.0
Table 2b Adverse Events (%) Occurring in ≥ 2% of Mobic Patients in two 12-Week Rheumatoid Arthritis Placebo Controlled Trials
Placebo Mobic
7.5 mg daily
Mobic
15 mg daily
No. of Patients 469 481 477
1 MedDRA high level term (preferred terms): dyspeptic signs and symptoms (dyspepsia, dyspepsia aggravated, eructation, gastrointestinal irritation), upper respiratory tract infections-pathogen unspecified (laryngitis NOS, pharyngitis NOS, sinusitis NOS), joint related signs and symptoms (arthralgia, arthralgia aggravated, joint crepitation, joint effusion, joint swelling),, and musculoskeletal and connective tissue signs and symptoms NEC (back pain, back pain aggravated, muscle spasms, musculoskeletal pain)
2 MedDRA preferred term: diarrhea NOS, nausea, abdominal pain NOS, influenza like illness, headaches NOS, dizziness (excl vertigo), and rash NOS
Gastrointestinal disorders 14.1 18.9 16.8
   Abdominal pain NOS2 0.6 2.9 2.3<

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