21 . October , 2018 - Sunday
Check todays hot topics or new products

Find a Drug: Advanced

Please Sign in or Register

All about: Chlorthalidone

Big Image Pronouncation: (klor-THAL-ih-dohn)
Class: Thiazide diuretic

Trade Names:
Chlorthalidone
- Tablets 25 mg
- Tablets 50 mg
- Tablets 100 mg

Trade Names:
Thalitone
- Tablets 15 mg

Apo-Chlorthalidone (Canada)

Mechanism of Action

Pharmacology

Inhibits reabsorption of sodium and chloride in proximal portion of distal convoluted tubules.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

64% absorbed.

Distribution

Excreted in breast milk.

Elimination

The t ½ is 40 h.

Onset

2 to 3 h.

Peak

2 to 6 h.

Duration

24 to 72 h.

Indications and Usage

Reduction of edema associated with CHF, hepatic cirrhosis, renal function impairment, corticosteroid and estrogen therapy; management of hypertension.

Unlabeled Uses

Treatment of calcium nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis, diabetes insipidus.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to thiazides, related diuretics, or sulfonamide-derived drugs; anuria; renal decompensation.

Dosage and Administration

Edema
Adults

PO 50 to 200 mg daily or on alternate days.

Hypertension
Adults

PO 25 to 100 mg daily. Doses above 25 mg/day potentiate potassium excretion but do not benefit sodium excretion or BP reduction.

Drug Interactions

Allopurinol

Concurrent use may increase incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to allopurinol.

Amphotericin B, corticosteroids

May intensify potassium depletion.

Anticholinergics

May increase chlorthalidone absorption.

Anticoagulants

May diminish anticoagulant effects.

Bile acid sequestrants

May reduce chlorthalidone absorption. Give chlorthalidone at least 2 h before bile acid sequestrant.

Calcium salts

Hypercalcemia may develop.

Diazoxide

May cause hyperglycemia.

Digitalis glycosides

Diuretic-induced hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia may precipitate digitalis-induced arrhythmias.

Lithium

May decrease renal excretion of lithium.

Loop diuretics

Synergistic effects may result in profound diuresis and serious electrolyte abnormalities.

Methenamines, NSAIDs

May decrease effectiveness of chlorthalidone.

Sulfonylureas, insulin

May decrease hypoglycemic effect of sulfonylureas.

Laboratory Test Interactions

Increased serum bilirubin levels. Serum magnesium levels in uremic patients may be increased.

Adverse Reactions

CNS

Dizziness; lightheadedness; vertigo; headache; paresthesias; weakness; restlessness; insomnia.

Dermatologic

Purpura; photosensitivity; rash; urticaria; necrotizing angiitis; vasculitis; cutaneous vasculitis; exfoliative dermatitis; toxic epidermal necrolysis.

EENT

Xanthopsia (yellow vision).

GI

Anorexia; gastric irritation; nausea; vomiting; abdominal pain or cramping; bloating; diarrhea; constipation; pancreatitis.

Genitourinary

Impotence; reduced libido.

Hematologic

Leukopenia; thrombocytopenia; agranulocytosis; aplastic or hypoplastic anemia.

Hepatic

Jaundice.

Metabolic

Hyperglycemia; glycosuria; hyperuricemia; fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

Miscellaneous

Muscle cramps or spasms.

Precautions

Pregnancy

Category B .

Lactation

Excreted in breast milk.

Children

Safety and efficacy not established.

Hypersensitivity

May occur in patients with or without history of allergy or bronchial asthma; cross-sensitivity with sulfonamides also may occur.

Renal Function

May precipitate azotemia; use with caution.

Hepatic Function

Minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma; use with caution.

Lipids

May cause increased concentrations of total serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, and LDL in some patients.

Postsympathectomy patients

Antihypertensive effects may be enhanced.

Overdosage

Symptoms

Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, drowsiness, syncope, potassium depletion, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, coma, GI irritation, GI hypermotility, seizures.

Patient Information

  • Teach patient signs and symptoms of hypokalemia (eg, weakness, cramps, nausea, dizziness), especially if patient is taking digitalis.
  • Explain diuretic effects of drug so patient is aware of expected and potential outcomes.
  • Instruct patient to follow low-sodium diet to enhance action of medication.
  • If high-potassium diet is recommended by health care provider, help patient identify appropriate meal plans or potassium supplements.
  • Teach patient to record weight daily at a consistent time and to notify health care provider if weight fluctuates 5 or more pounds.
  • Tell patient to notify health care provider of salt or water retention occurs (eg, swelling of feet, ankles, calves).
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to avoid photosensitivity reaction.
  • Advise patient to avoid sudden position changes to prevent orthostatic hypotension. Have patient get up slowly and dangle feet before getting out of bed.

Recent Drug Updates at DrugIndexOnline:





Chorionic Gonadotropin Chorionic Gonadotropin
Pronouncation: (core-ee-AHN-ik goe-NAD-oh-troe-pin) Class: Ovulation stimulant Trade Names: Chorionic Gonadotropin - Powder for injection 5,000 units/vial with 10 mL diluent (to make 500 units/mL) - Powder for injection 10,000 units/vial with 10 mL diluent (to make 1,000 units/mL) Trade Names: Nova more...

Cort-Dome Rectal Cort-Dome Rectal
Some commonly used brand names are: In the U.S.— Anucort-HC 4 Anu-Med HC 4 Anuprep HC 4 Anusol-HC 4 Anutone-HC 4 Anuzone-HC 4 Cort-Dome 4 Cortenema 3 Cortifoam 4 Hemril-HC Uniserts 4 Hemorrhoidal HC 4 Proctocort 4 Proctosol-HC 4 Rectasol-HC 4 In Canada— Betnesol 1 Cortenema 3 Cort more...

Hyoscyamine/Methenamine/Methylene Blue/Phenyl Salicylate/Sodium Biphosphate Delayed-Release Tablets Hyoscyamine/Methenamine/Methylene Blue/Phenyl Salicylate/Sodium Biphosphate Delayed-Release Tablets
Generic Name: Hyoscyamine/Methenamine/Methylene Blue/Phenyl Salicylate/Sodium Biphosphate Delayed-Release Tablets (hye-oh-SYE-a-meen/meth-EN-a-meen/METH-i-leen/FEN-ill sa-LI-si-late/SOE-dee-um bye-FOS-fate) Brand Name: Urimax and UtiraHyoscyamine/Methenamine/Methylene Blue/Phenyl Salicylate/Sod more...

isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin
Generic Name: isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin (eye so NYE a zid/peer a ZIN a mide/RIF am pin) Brand Names: Rifater What is isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin? Isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampin are antibiotics. They prevent tuberculous bacteria from multiplying in your body. Isoniazid, p more...

Kogenate FS injection Kogenate FS injection
Generic Name: antihemophilic factor (factor VIII) (injection) (an TEE hee moe FIH lick FAC tor) Brand Names: Advate rAHF-PFM, Alphanate, Helixate, Helixate FS, Hemofil-M, Humate-P, Koate-DVI, Koate-HP, Kogenate, Kogenate FS, Monarc-M, Monoclate-P, Recombinate, Refacto What is antihemophil more...

Menu Magic Instant Breakfast Menu Magic Instant Breakfast
Some commonly used brand names are: In the U.S.— Accupep HPF 9 Advera 2 Alitraq 9 Amin-Aid 2 Attain 10 Carnation Instant Breakfast 7 Carnation Instant Breakfast No Sugar Added 7 Casec 8 CitriSource 10 Compleat Modified 1 Compleat Regular 1 Comply 10 Criticare HN 9 Crucial 2 Deliver 2.0 10 more...

Nuprin Caplets Nuprin Caplets
Some commonly used brand names are: In the U.S.— Actron 9 Advil 7 Advil Caplets 7 Advil, Children's 7 Aleve 14 Anaprox 14 Anaprox DS 14 Ansaid 6 Bayer Select Ibuprofen Pain Relief Formula Caplets 7 Cataflam 1 Clinoril 18 Cotylbutazone 16 Cramp End 7 Daypro 15 Dolgesic 7 Dolobid 2 EC-Napro more...

Proctozone HC Proctozone HC
Generic Name: hydrocortisone rectal (hy dro KORT ih zone REK tal) Brand Names: Anucort-HC, Anusol-HC, Anuzone HC, Hemorrhoidal HC, Proctocort, Proctozone HC, Rectasol-HC What is Proctozone HC (hydrocortisone rectal)? Hydrocortisone is a steroid medicine that reduces inflammation in th more...