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All about: Clindamycin Topical

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Generic Name: clindamycin phosphate
Dosage Form: Topical solution, topical gel and topical lotion

For External Use

Clindamycin Topical Description

Clindamycin phosphate topical solution and clindamycin phosphate topical lotion contain clindamycin phosphate, USP, at a concentration equivalent to 10 mg clindamycin per milliliter. Clindamycin phosphate topical gel contains clindamycin phosphate, USP, at a concentration equivalent to 10 mg clindamycin per gram. Each clindamycin phosphate topical solution pledget applicator contains approximately 1 mL of topical solution.

Clindamycin phosphate is a water soluble ester of the semi-synthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent antibiotic lincomycin.

The solution contains isopropyl alcohol 50% v/v, propylene glycol, and water.

The gel contains allantoin, carbomer 934P, methylparaben, polyethylene glycol 400, propylene glycol, sodium hydroxide, and purified water.

The lotion contains cetostearyl alcohol (2.5%); glycerin; glyceryl stearate SE (with potassium monostearate); isostearyl alcohol (2.5%); methylparaben (0.3%); sodium lauroyl sarcosinate; stearic acid; and purified water.

The structural formula is represented below:

The chemical name for clindamycin phosphate is Methyl 7 - chloro - 6,7,8 - trideoxy - 6 - (1 - methyl - trans - 4 - propyl - L - 2 - pyrrolidinecarboxamido) - 1 - thio - L - threo - α - D - galacto - octopyranoside 2-(dihydrogen phosphate).

Clindamycin Topical - Clinical Pharmacology

Although clindamycin phosphate is inactive in vitro, rapid in vivo hydrolysis converts this compound to the antibacterially active clindamycin.

Cross resistance has been demonstrated between clindamycin and lincomycin.

Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin.

Following multiple topical applications of clindamycin phosphate at a concentration equivalent to 10 mg clindamycin per mL in an isopropyl alcohol and water solution, very low levels of clindamycin are present in the serum (0–3 ng/mL) and less than 0.2% of the dose is recovered in urine as clindamycin.

Clindamycin activity has been demonstrated in comedones from acne patients. The mean concentration of antibiotic activity in extracted comedones after application of clindamycin phosphate topical solution for 4 weeks was 597 mcg/g of comedonal material (range 0–1490). Clindamycin in vitro inhibits all Propionibacterium acnes cultures tested (MICs 0.4 mcg/mL). Free fatty acids on the skin surface have been decreased from approximately 14% to 2% following application of clindamycin.

Indications and Usage for Clindamycin Topical

Clindamycin phosphate topical solution, clindamycin phosphate topical gel and clindamycin phosphate topical lotion are indicated in the treatment of acne vulgaris. In view of the potential for diarrhea, bloody diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, the physician should consider whether other agents are more appropriate. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)

Contraindications

Clindamycin phosphate topical solution, clindamycin phosphate topical gel and clindamycin phosphate topical lotion are contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin, a history of regional enteritis or ulcerative colitis, or a history of antibiotic-associated colitis.

Warnings

Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis which may result in patient death. Use of the topical formulation of clindamycin results in absorption of the antibiotic from the skin surface. Diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported with the use of topical and systemic clindamycin.

Studies indicate a toxin(s) produced by clostridia is one primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. Endoscopic examination may reveal pseudomembranous colitis. Stool culture for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically.

When significant diarrhea occurs, the drug should be discontinued. Large bowel endoscopy should be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.

Antiperistaltic agents such as opiates and diphenoxylate with atropine may prolong and/or worsen the condition. Vancomycin has been found to be effective in the treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis produced by Clostridium difficile. The usual adult dosage is 500 milligrams to 2 grams of vancomycin orally per day in three to four divided doses administered for 7 to 10 days. Cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind vancomycin in vitro. If both a resin and vancomycin are to be administered concurrently, it may be advisable to separate the time of administration of each drug.

Diarrhea, colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis have been observed to begin up to several weeks following cessation of oral and parenteral therapy with clindamycin.

Precautions

General

Clindamycin phosphate topical solution contains an alcohol base which will cause burning and irritation of the eye. In the event of accidental contact with sensitive surfaces (eye, abraded skin, mucous membranes), bathe with copious amounts of cool tap water. The solution has an unpleasant taste and caution should be exercised when applying medication around the mouth.

Clindamycin phosphate topical products should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.

Drug Interactions

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects—Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and mice using subcutaneous and oral doses of clindamycin ranging from 100 to 600 mg/kg/day and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to clindamycin. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether clindamycin is excreted in human milk following use of clindamycin phosphate. However, orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been reported to appear in breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients under the age of 12 have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies for Cleocin T did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

Adverse Reactions

In 18 clinical studies of various formulations of clindamycin phosphate using placebo vehicle and/or active comparator drugs as controls, patients experienced a number of treatment emergent adverse dermatologic events [see table below].

Number of Patients Reporting Events
Treatment Emergent
Adverse Event
Solution
n=553(%)
Gel
n=148(%)
Lotion
n=160(%)
# not recorded
*
of 126 subjects
Burning 62 (11) 15 (10) 17 (11)
Itching 36 ( 7) 15 (10) 17 (11)
Burning/Itching 60 (11) # (−) # (−)
Dryness 105 (19) 34 (23) 29 (18)
Erythema 86 (16) 10 ( 7) 22 (14)
Oiliness/Oily Skin 8 ( 1) 26 (18) 12* (10)
Peeling 61 (11) # (−) 11 ( 7)

Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally.

Cases of diarrhea, bloody diarrhea and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported as adverse reactions in patients treated with oral and parenteral formulations of clindamycin and rarely with topical clindamycin (see WARNINGS).

Abdominal pain and gastrointestinal disturbances as well as gram-negative folliculitis have also been reported in association with the use of topical formulations of clindamycin.

Overdosage

Topically applied clindamycin phosphate can be absorbed in sufficient amounts to produce systemic effects. (See WARNINGS.)

Clindamycin Topical Dosage and Administration

Apply a thin film of clindamycin phosphate topical solution, clindamycin phosphate topical lotion, clindamycin phosphate topical gel, or use a clindamycin phosphate topical solution pledget for the application of clindamycin phosphate twice daily to affected area. More than one pledget may be used. Each pledget should be used only once and then be discarded.

Lotion: Shake well immediately before using.

Pledget: Remove pledget from foil just before use. Do not use if the seal is broken. Discard after single use.

Keep all liquid dosage forms in containers tightly closed.

How is Clindamycin Topical Supplied

Clindamycin phosphate topical solution containing clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 10 mg clindamycin per milliliter is available in the following sizes:

30 mL applicator bottle—NDC 59762-3728-1

60 mL applicator bottle—NDC 59762-3728-2

Carton of 60 single-use pledget applicators—NDC 59762-3728-3

Clindamycin phosphate topical gel containing clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 10 mg clindamycin per gram is available in the following sizes:

60 gram tube—NDC 59762-3743-1

30 gram tube—NDC 59762-3743-2

Clindamycin phosphate topical lotion containing clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 10 mg clindamycin per milliliter is available in the following size:

60 mL plastic squeeze bottle—NDC 59762-3744-1

Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP].

Protect from freezing.

Rx only

LAB-0048-3.0

November 2005


clindamycin phosphate (clindamycin phosphate)
PRODUCT INFO
Product Code 59762-3728 Dosage Form SOLUTION
Route Of Administration TOPICAL DEA Schedule
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
clindamycin phosphate (clindamycin) Active 10 MILLIGRAM  In 1 MILLILITER
isopropyl alcohol Inactive  
propylene glycol Inactive  
water Inactive  
IMPRINT INFORMATION
Characteristic Appearance Characteristic Appearance
Color Score
Shape Symbol
Imprint Code Coating
Size
PACKAGING
# NDC Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 59762-3728-1 30 MILLILITER In 1 BOTTLE None
2 59762-3728-2 60 MILLILITER In 1 BOTTLE None
3 59762-3728-3 60 SWAB In 1 CARTON None

clindamycin phosphate (clindamycin phosphate)
PRODUCT INFO
Product Code 59762-3744 Dosage Form LOTION
Route Of Administration TOPICAL DEA Schedule
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
clindamycin phosphate (clindamycin) Active 10 MILLIGRAM  In 1 MILLILITER
cetostearyl alcohol Inactive  
glycerin Inactive  
glyceryl stearate SE (with potassium monostearate) Inactive  
isostearyl alcohol Inactive  
methylparaben Inactive  
sodium lauroyl sarcosinate Inactive  
stearic acid Inactive  
water Inactive  
IMPRINT INFORMATION
Characteristic Appearance Characteristic Appearance
Color Score
Shape Symbol
Imprint Code Coating
Size
PACKAGING
# NDC Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 59762-3744-1 60 MILLILITER In 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC None

clindamycin phosphate (clindamycin phosphate)
PRODUCT INFO
Product Code 59762-3743 Dosage Form GEL
Route Of Administration TOPICAL DEA Schedule
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
clindamycin phosphate (clindamycin) Active 10 MILLIGRAM  In 1 GRAM
allantoin Inactive  
carbomer 934P Inactive  
methylparaben Inactive  
polyethylene glycol 400 Inactive  
propylene glycol Inactive  
sodium hydroxide Inactive  
water Inactive  
IMPRINT INFORMATION
Characteristic Appearance Characteristic Appearance
Color Score
Shape Symbol
Imprint Code Coating
Size
PACKAGING
# NDC Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 59762-3743-1 60 GRAM In 1 TUBE None
2 59762-3743-2 30 GRAM In 1 TUBE None

Revised: 12/2005

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